White paper on crime 2011 Part3/Chapter1/Section4/2
The following four types of juvenile training schools are used to accommodate juveniles according to their age, level of criminal tendency, and physical and mental condition, etc. at the time of their admission:
 Primary juvenile training schools: Juveniles generally aged 12 or older but typically younger than 16 and without any serious physical/mental disabilities;
 Middle juvenile training schools: Juveniles generally aged 16 or older but younger than 20 and without any serious physical/mental disabilities;
 Special juvenile training schools: Juveniles generally aged 16 or older but younger than 23 and without any serious physical/mental disabilities but with strong criminal tendencies. However, juveniles sentenced to imprisonment who are younger than 16 can also be accommodated; and
 Medical juvenile training schools: Juveniles generally aged 12 or older but younger than 26 and with serious physical/mental disabilities.
Both short-term and long-term treatment programs are available at juvenile training schools, with the former being further divided into general short-term treatment programs and special short-term treatment programs. Primary juvenile training schools and middle juvenile training schools can implement both short-term and long-term treatment programs whereas special juvenile training schools and medical juvenile training schools implement long-term treatment programs only. Juveniles subject to the respective programs are as follows:
 General short-term treatment programs: Juveniles who can be expected to be corrected and reintegrated back into society through continuous intensive short-term guidance and training as they are very likely to be promptly reformed (maximum term of confinement, in principle, of six months);
 Special short-term treatment programs: Juveniles who are subject to , but less inclined to delinquency, and who therefore suit more open treatment (maximum term of confinement of four months);
 Long-term treatment programs: Juveniles who are not suitable for short-term treatment programs (maximum term of confinement, in principle, of two years).
The type of juvenile training school is designated by a family court following the decision of commitment to a juvenile training school. In addition, family courts recommend short-term treatment programs upon that decision if deemed appropriate, and in which case the treatment programs are then determined in accordance with that recommendation. In any other cases the juveniles receive long-term treatment programs.
Table 3-1-4-8 shows the number of juveniles newly admitted to juvenile training schools in 2010 by type of juvenile training school and treatment program.
Treatment courses are established with both general short-term treatment programs and long-term treatment programs (with further divisions of the treatment courses also being available within the long-term treatment programs). All the juveniles at juvenile training schools are provided with guidance in five areas, namely daily life guidance, vocational guidance, academic education, health and physical education, and special activities. However, each juvenile is categorized in the prior treatment course of correctional education weighing each of those five areas with some specific matters that require attention in the course of implementing the correctional education according to his/her characteristics, including the level of criminal tendency, academic ability, future plan, and physical and mental condition, to make the treatment most effective for him/her (medical treatment is prior to other areas within the medical care course).
Table 3-1-4-9 shows the type and subject of treatment courses, along with the number of juveniles newly admitted to juvenile training schools by treatment course, etc. in 2010.
Correctional education is the core treatment provided at juvenile training schools and involves the five areas of daily life guidance, vocational guidance, academic education, health and physical education, and special activities. Those considered unable to adapt to society due to a physical or mental disability are provided with medical care. In addition, the treatment at juvenile training schools is further divided into the three educational stages of orientation, intermediate, and pre-release. Correctional education is implemented based on individual treatment plans formulated for the juvenile of concern by the director of pertinent juvenile training school, specifying the goals, basic content, and methods to be used at each stage.
Treatment grades are established for juveniles at juvenile treatment schools in thus facilitating their reformation via raising their motivation to make voluntary efforts (the treatment grades are divided into first to third grades, with the first and second grades being divided again into upper and lower grades). Newly admitted juveniles are first placed in the lower second grade before moving on to the other grades in accordance with the progress they have made in their reformation. Restrictions in their lives are accordingly also alleviated in stages.
The content of the abovementioned guidance within the five areas is as follows.
Daily life guidance is implemented around the following issues:  problems related to the juveniles’ way of thinking, attitude, and behavior that could thereby lead them into delinquency,  problems related to the juveniles’ predisposition and emotions, etc.,  problems related to the cultivation of aesthetic sensitivity,  problems related to the juveniles’ basic life style, law-abidance and self-discipline, and interpersonal relationships, etc.,  problems related to their home environment (relationship with their families and friends, etc.), and  preparation for selecting a career, life planning, and social reintegration through various methods that include counseling, guidance on writing essays and a diary, role lettering, and introspection, etc.
In addition, “education concerning the victims’ point of view” has been improved and enhanced in thus aiding juveniles to better understand the delinquent acts they committed, the seriousness of them, and thus the victims’ feelings, etc., and thereby enabling them to be more capable of responding to the victim in a more sincere manner.
Juvenile training schools currently offer vocational guidance through courses that include welding, woodwork, civil engineering and construction, operation of construction machinery, agriculture and horticulture, office work, and caretaking services, etc. In 2010, 47.7% of discharged juveniles obtained qualifications or licenses related to their individually assigned vocational guidance course, while 53.9% obtained other qualifications or licenses. Fig. 3-1-4-10 shows the percent distribution of juveniles discharged in 2010 by qualification/license obtained.
Since FY 2006 the Ministry of Justice has, in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, been implementing comprehensive employment support measures for persons released from prisons, etc., and as part of those measures, providing juveniles at juvenile training schools with vocational counseling, etc. by public employment security office staff members (See (6) of Subsection 2, Section 2, Chapter 4, Part 2).
Juveniles at juvenile training schools who did not complete their compulsory education or those who need and wish to receive a senior high school education are provided with an academic education that is the equivalent of that which they would receive at school. An academic education is also provided to all the other juveniles as a supplementary education, as required, in thus helping them to acquire the basic scholastic abilities needed to lead a normal social life or to proceed to a higher education or return to the school to which they previously belonged. Some institutions implement compulsory education or senior high school education through the academic education programs being entrusted to external schools, etc. Of juveniles discharged in 2010, 128 returned to junior high school and 139 to senior high school, while a total of 310 juveniles received graduation certificates from their junior high schools while in a juvenile training school (Source: Annual Report of Statistics on Correction). A Certificate for Students Achieving the Proficiency Level of Upper Secondary School Graduates (high school graduate equivalency examination) has also been made available at juvenile training schools since FY 2007. In FY 2010, 383 juveniles took the examination, of which 116 passed the examination and 256 passed part of subjects (Source: The Lifelong Learning Policy Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology).
Doctors and medical staff, etc. at juvenile training schools provide health education on disease prevention, etc. in thus enhancing the juveniles’ ability to maintain good health, and with consideration also being given to their delinquency and actual living conditions before admission, etc.
Various sporting activities are implemented through physical education in enhancing their basic physical capabilities, concentration, patience, and endurance, with group games being utilized in order to develop the ability to comply with rules and cooperate in interpersonal relationships, etc.
Special activities include  voluntary activities,  extramural educational activities,  club activities,  recreation, and  other events implemented at juvenile training schools.
As voluntary activities juveniles, at most juvenile training schools, can be assigned roles that include acting as a day manager, book manager, maintenance manager, or recreation manager, etc. (role playing activities) in thus developing greater autonomy and a cooperative spirit. In addition, meetings and homerooms are held and in-house magazines, etc. are published. Social service activities and field trips, etc. are also implemented as extramural educational activities. As social service activities many institutions implement volunteer activities at welfare facilities and cleaning/beautification activities at nearby parks and public facilities, etc.
Guardians play a significant role in the reformation/rehabilitation of juveniles, and hence juvenile training schools are now providing guidance and advice that can help guardians cope with any problems concerning the delinquency of a juvenile, making information on correctional education available, and holding guardian meetings.
A wide variety of private volunteers, including volunteer visitors, chaplains, members of the Women’s Association for Rehabilitation Aid, and members of BBS associations, etc., are involved in support activities at juvenile training schools (See Subsection 3, Section 3, Chapter 4, Part 2 and Subsection 2, Section 5, Chapter 5, Part 2).
Volunteer visitors provide juveniles with advice and guidance on mental problems they have along with cultural guidance, etc. As of the end of 2010, 617 persons were commissioned to be volunteer visitors to juvenile training schools (Source: The Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Chaplains can provide religious education upon request. As of the end of 2010 juvenile training schools entrusted it to a total of 373 chaplains (Source: The Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Members of the Women’s Association for Rehabilitation Aid and members of the BBS associations, etc. also support treatment at juvenile training schools in a variety of ways. For example, regularly visiting juvenile training schools to participate in school events such as birthday parties, cherry blossom viewing parties, and Coming of Age ceremonies, or to play games and be involved in sporting activities with juveniles or participate in debates as judges. Interactions with these volunteers can serve as significant encouragement to juveniles to rehabilitate themselves.