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 White paper on crime 2003 Part 4/Chap.2/Sec.5/3 

3 Outline of treatment of juvenile prisoners

  As for juvenile prisoners, in light of their characteristics, treatment is provided based on 2 fundamental concepts. The first is " individualization of treatment. " The second is " diversification of contents and method of treatment. " Juvenile prisoners imprisoned in juvenile training schools who are under 16 are not obligated to work and receive correctional education, even if they were sentenced to imprisonment with labor.
  In addition, the subjects of vocational training include welding; automobile maintenance, electrical engineering, etc. Many juvenile prisoners obtain publicly acknowledged qualifications or licenses, or acquire vocational skills that aid self-sustenance and rehabilitation after their release.
  For academic education, the Matsumoto Juvenile Prison established a branch of a local public junior high school within its premises. Also, the Matsumoto, Nara, and Morioka Juvenile Prisons have launched correspondence courses for senior high school education in cooperation with local prefectural senior high schools. Juveniles may take social correspondence courses or correspondence school education if they so wish (Source: Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Explanation of terms

Indeterminate sentence: Indeterminate sentence means imprisonment sentenced without determining the term of imprisonment in advance. In order to bring flexibility to treatment according to the maturity, educational achievement, and other factors of juvenile prisoners, the Juvenile Law stipulates that a sentence shall be given determining the maximum and minimum term within the scope of sentence-for example, "imprisonment with labor for 3 years or more but 5 years or less," if a juvenile is punishable by imprisonment with or without labor for a limited term of 3 years or more (excluding where a execution of sentence is suspended). In the case of giving an indeterminate sentence to a juvenile, the maximum term of sentence shall not exceed 10 years while the minimum term of sentence shall not exceed 5 years.

Individualization of treatment: Individualization of treatment means that treatment is implemented according tithe characteristics and needs of individual prisoners, such as formulation of individual treatment plans, designation of a person in charge of each individual, and implementation of evaluation of learning results.

Diversification of contents and method of treatment: Diversification of contents and method of treatment means that various kinds of treatment are implemented, such as individual consultation, individual guidance including guidance by diary, guidance depending on type of treatment using various skills for treatment, promotion of prisoners' taking vocational training, etc., taking into consideration the situation of individual prisoners.