5. Measures against bribery and corruption

(1) Measures taken by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

The Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions was adopted by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1997. In Japan, as a relevant domestic law, the act of providing illicit profits, etc. to foreign public officials, etc. was criminalized by an amendment of the Unfair Competition Prevention Act (Act No. 47 of 1993) in 1999. The said crime was then amended to include crimes committed by Japanese citizens outside Japan, strengthening penal provisions against natural persons, and extend the period of the statute of limitations against juridical persons.

(2) Measures taken by the U.N.

The U.N. adopted the U.N. Convention against Corruption in 2003, which criminalizes bribery of domestic and foreign public officials, etc., and provides a framework for recovery of assets gained through corruption to the country from where they originated (Japan is yet to conclude this convention).