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4 Treatment in juvenile training schools
The purpose of treatment in juvenile training schools is to realize the administrative goal of assuredly detaining juveniles in juvenile training schools and implementing correctional education. Based on the ultimate goal of sound development of juveniles under the Juvenile Law, juvenile training schools provide systematic treatment in order to achieve the objectives of correctional education, such as correcting problems related to delinquency, eliminating causes for maladjustment to society, and giving the ability to adjust to social life.
(1) Individualization of treatment and classification treatment system
The individualization of treatment means providing treatment according to individual needs in sufficient consideration of the personality, good points, preferences for future career options, mental and physical conditions, tendency toward delinquency, etc. of individual juveniles. This is one of the basic policies for correctional education by juvenile training schools.
Classification treatment is one of the basic procedures for realizing such individualization of treatment. The system conducts scientific research on individual target juveniles and organizes a group with respect to each type of juveniles who have common characteristics and educational needs, aiming to provide each group with the most appropriate treatment to facilitate adjustment to society by the target juveniles. More specifically, the treatment is based on the type of juvenile training schools, type of treatment, treatment courses and classes, educational courses formed and implemented according to treatment course, etc., individual treatment plans formed and implemented for individual juvenile inmates, and so on.
(2) Phased treatment system
The phases for treatment of juveniles admitted to juvenile training schools are classified into 1st grade, 2nd grade and 3rd grade under the regulations, and furthermore, 1st grade and 2nd grade are divided into upper grade and lower grade. Those admitted to juvenile training schools are placed in the lower 2nd grade at the time of admission. After that, they move through the various phases according to their improvement and progress.
With the aim of inspiring the will to improve themselves among the juveniles in these juvenile training schools, facilitating them to enhance self-improvement and progress by their own spontaneous endeavors and thereby achieving the treatment results as early as possible, treatment is not provided uniformly for the entire term of detention but by establishing treatment goals, treatment contents, and methods suitable for each phase.
In addition, treatment in juvenile training schools needs to be consistently systematic from admission to release. Thus, treatment is divided into 3 treatment processes the orientation stage, intermediate stage and pre-release stage-where educational goals and contents according to each stage have been established developmentally.
Regarding the process of treatment and phase for treatment, broadly speaking, the orientation stage corresponds to the lower 2nd grade, intermediate stage to the upper 2nd grade and the lower 1st grade, and pre-release stage to the upper 1st grade.
(3) Fields of guidance
Correctional education is divided into 5 fields of guidance-life guidance, vocational training and guidance, academic education, health and physical education, and special activities. Guidance is given by mutually supplementing these fields of guidance.
a Living guidance
Living guidance plays a central role in correctional education, which develops effective treatment for juveniles in order to give them the ability to lead a sound social life by making best use of specific events that occur in all scenes of daily life in the juvenile training schools in light of the character, living experience, the way of viewing things and thinking, values, problems related to delinquency, etc. While maintaining a balance between individual guidance and group guidance, juvenile training schools provide treatment measures such as training for establishing interpersonal relationships and increasing self awareness, etc. through mutual interaction in group living. Also, treatment is given to juveniles in an organized and systematic way by closely connecting such treatment with education in other fields of guidance.
The contents of living guidance are as follows:
(i) Guidance on problems with awareness, attitude and behavior related to delinquency
(ii) Therapeutic education for problems in predisposition
(iii) Cultivation of aesthetic sensitivity,
(iv) Guidance on basic living habits, law-abiding and self-disciplinary behavior and interpersonal relationships
(v) Guidance related to environments for juveniles after release (family, friendship, etc.)
(vi) Guidance on career selection, life planning, and social rehabilitation
b Vocational training and guidance
Vocational training and guidance aims to foster an attitude of respect for work ethics and to furnish juveniles with the ability to select vocations according to their individual characteristics. The aims of vocational training and guidance for junior juveniles are to give them basic knowledge and vocational skills, and to cultivate their ability to apply such knowledge and skills. For intermediate and senior juveniles, the aims are to give them the knowledge and skills necessary to support themselves and an ability to apply such knowledge and skills, in addition to the aforementioned aims for junior juveniles.
Vocational training and guidance includes:
(i) production training in order to improve vocational awareness, knowledge, and skills, etc., vocational training according to the characters of trainees, such as skill training, provision of vocational information, vocational guidance to give consultation and advice relating to vocational life and other guidance,
(ii) vocational training based on the Human Resource Development Promotion Law, and other related laws, and
(iii) applied training of (i) and (ii), and outside vocational guidance undertaken by external business entities as a means for a smooth transition to a social life, etc.
As of April 1, 2003, the main vocational training and guidance subjects were civil engineering and construction, welding, agriculture and horticulture, etc. for males, and reception services, office work/word-processing, nursing-care services, etc. for females (Source: Data by Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Fig. 4-2-4-14 shows the percent distribution of the number of juveniles released in 2002 who obtained qualifications or licenses through vocational training and guidance, by type of qualification or license. A total of 2,133 released juveniles obtained qualifications or licenses related to vocational training and guidance, which accounted for 35.3% of the total juveniles released. The percentage of such juveniles increased by 0.7 points from the previous year.
Also, 376 (6.2%) of those released from juvenile training schools in 2002 received outside vocational guidance (Source: Annual Report of Statistics on Correction).
Fig. 4-2-4-14 Percent distribution of the number of juveniles released from juvenile training schools who obtained qualifications or licenses, by type of qualification or license (2002)
c Academic education
Those who have not completed compulsory education are placed in the academic education course, in which academic education is systematically implemented based on the junior high school course of study, so that such juveniles can receive the education course of junior high school, and guidance for entrance examinations is given to them according to future career options, etc. Those in need of senior high school education are transferred to schools with correspondence course programs. In addition, those who wish to enter institutions of higher education are given opportunities to take the University Entrance Qualification Examination organized by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, through supplementary classes tailored to the needs of individual juveniles. Also, necessary guidance is given, such as education for juveniles with poor academic ability and those who wish to proceed to higher education or return to school, etc. Furthermore, those in need of knowledge other than school education receive social correspondence course programs accredited by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, such as bookkeeping, electrical engineering, calligraphy/penmanship, and lettering, etc.
Of those who released from juvenile training schools in 2002, 123 returned to junior high schools and 136 went back to senior high schools. A total of 317 juveniles received the certificate of junior high school education while in juvenile training school (Source: Annual Report of Statistics on Correction).
d Health and physical education
Health education and physical education at juvenile training schools aim at the restoration and improvement of physical health, and cultivation of concentration, endurance, and stamina. The importance of such education is recognized since many juveniles at juvenile training schools had led an unhealthy life before entering juvenile training schools. Taking into consideration the delinquency and living customs prior to entering juvenile training schools, health education provides guidance on health care and disease prevention, whereas physical education aims to enhance basic physical abilities and facilitate juveniles to learn the importance of conformity to rules and cooperation in interpersonal relationships, through various sports.
e Special activities
Special activities are conducted mainly in groups, and include (i) voluntary activities, (ii) outside educational activities (field trips, voluntary services, etc.), (iii) club activities, (iv) recreation and (v) events. Special activities assume the critical role of making use of leisure hours and enriching life in juvenile training schools.
(4) Medical care and meals
It is important to maintain and improve the health of juvenile inmates in order to achieve the goal of correctional education. Thus, a Medical Division is in place at each juvenile training school and full-time doctors are assigned there. Normal diagnosis is performed at each institution; however, those who require special or long-term medical care are admitted to medical juvenile training schools. Juveniles may receive treatment in proper hospitals outside as outpatients or by hospitalization, if it is deemed necessary.
Of those released from juvenile training schools in 2002, 1,674 (27.7%) received some kind of medical treatment in hospital rooms while they are in juvenile training schools, including those who received long-term treatment in medical juvenile training schools. By type of illness, breathing problems had the largest share of all with 69.3%, followed by mental or behavioral illness (7.3%), and digestive problems (5.3%) (Source: Annual Report of Statistics on Correction).
As for the 3 basic living commodities-food, clothing, and shelter juvenile training schools lend or provide clothes, bedding, stationary goods, and other supplies necessary for daily life. Food is provided equally to every juvenile except where special meals should be given due to illness, etc.
(5) Cooperation and assistance by the private sector
Education in juvenile training schools is provided in cooperation with nongovernmental volunteers in various aspects of all fields of guidance. One of them is consultation activity by volunteer visitors for inmates and chaplains. Volunteer visitors for inmates give advice on mental problems and cultural guidance, etc., and chaplains perform individual consultation at the request of inmates. Juvenile training schools had 738 volunteer visitors for inmates and 360 chaplains as of December 31, 2002 (Source: Data by Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Also, laws opening the door to the utilization of social resources, and outside education, such as outside vocational guidance undertaken by external business entities and outside academic education undertaken by external school institutions, are appropriately implemented.