|Previous Next Index   Image Index Year Selection|
2 Summit meetings of leading countries
In summit meetings of leading countries (hereinafter referred to as "summit meetings"), various issues concerning international crime are discussed such as drug tracking, terrorism, money laundering and transnational organized crime groups, emphasizing the necessity of international cooperation for the suppression of these international crimes.
The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was convened under the economic declaration of the Arche Summit held in 1989. In 1990, the FATF presented recommendations on measures against money laundering such as criminalizing money laundering on drug offenses, encouraging financial institutions etc. to identify suspicious customers and to report suspicious transactions to the competent authorities, confiscating and retaining illegal proceeds, and strengthening international cooperation (original 40 Recommendations of the FATF). The original 40 Recommendations were revised in 1996 and provided to apply the regulations on money laundering not only to that based on drug offenses but also to that based on other serious offenses (the revised 40 Recommendations of FATF). Japan made arrangements to promote the recommendations by making the "Law Concerning Punishment of Organized Crime, Control of Crime Proceeds and Other Matters (Law No. 136 of 1999)" enacted on August 12, 1999. The revised 40 Recommendations was revised again at the FATF Plenary in June 2003 with a focus on strengthening the obligations of financial institutions etc. to identify suspicious consumers and to report suspicious transactions.
In accordance with the agreement reached at the G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting held in response to the simultaneous terrorist attacks in the United States in September 2001, the FATF adopted the "Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing" in 2001 and has been taking measures against terrorist financing by making use of the financing monitoring means that have been developed through measures against money laundering.
Against transnational organized crime, the Senior Experts Group on Transnational Organized Crime (Lyon Group) was established in accordance with the Chairperson's statement at the Halifax Summit held in 1995. At the Lyon Summit held in 1996, the Lyon Group presented the "Senior Experts Group Recommendations to Combat Transnational Organized Crime Efficiently (40 Recommendations of the Lyon Group)," which included protection of informants and witnesses, etc. as well as the importance and effectiveness of technology for controlled delivery (monitored illegal transportation). The state of the implementation of the Recommendations was reported at the Denver Summit in 1997 and a consensus of opinions was reached at the Birmingham Summit in 1998 in favor of making efforts for negotiations on international conventions on organized crime.
As for anti-terrorism measures, efforts have been made to establish a consensus of opinions on the occasion of summit meetings and to adopt conventions at the U.N. etc. based on such consensus. In particular, following the sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway in Japan and the terrorist bombing of the Federal Building in the United States in 1995, anti-terrorism measures were included in the agenda of the Halifax Summit and the Chairperson's statement required the terrorism expert group to report to the minister-level conference on concrete and cooperative measures for preventing, suppressing and investigating terrorist attacks. Subsequently, the "Declaration on Terrorism" was presented at the Lyon Summit in 1996 and the "25 Recommendations of the G7/G8 of the Ministerial Conference on Terrorism" on measures to combat terrorism was adopted in Paris in July 1996. Since then, anti-terrorism experts of leading countries of Summit members have met to discuss international cooperation on anti-terrorism measures on a regular basis (the members of this meeting are currently known as the Roma Group).
At the Cologne Summit in 1999, an agreement was reached to further promote negotiations for the U.N. convention on organized crime and the U.N. convention on terrorist financing. At the Kyushu-Okinawa Summit in 2000, a confirmation was obtained on the necessity of making positive efforts against crimes such as transnational organized crime, hi-tech offenses, drug offenses, financial offenses including money laundering, corruptions including bribery, and terrorism. At the Genoa Summit in 2001, the fight against transnational organized crime and against drugs were included in the major issues of the agenda. At the Kananaskis Summit in 2002, which was the first summit meeting of leading countries after the simultaneous terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001, cooperation for taking measures against terrorism was considered as one of the prior issues, and the following 2 matters were confirmed: (1) Summit members shall share information and cooperate with one another in taking measures so as to clarify underlying linkage between criminal activities, such as drug tracking and money laundering, and terrorist organizations; (2) the "G8 Recommendations on Transnational Crime" (agreed as the revised version of the "40 Recommendations of the Lyon Group" at the conference of G8 Ministers of Justice and the Interior Meeting that was held in advance of the Summit) was developed by revising the "40 Recommendations of the Lyon Group" so that they would reflect the latest analysis on techniques of investigation, laws and measures of cooperation that should be formulated on a global basis for the purpose of protecting society against transnational crime and terrorist threats. At the Evian Summit in 2003, measures against terrorism were considered as one of the prior issues, and a reconfirmation was obtained on agreements reached at the Kananaskis Summit to prevent terrorists or those who hide them from obtaining weapons of mass destruction.