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 White paper on crime 2003 Part 2/Chap.5/Sec.1/4 

4 Nongovernmental support organizations

  The activities for the rehabilitation of offenders and delinquents cannot be sufficiently effective without the understanding and cooperation of the community. The following are major nongovernmental organizations and supporters actively participating in or cooperating for such activities.

(1) BBS associations

  BBS (Big Brothers and Sisters) associations are voluntary organizations of young people who assist in the sound development and prevention of delinquency of juveniles by relating to them as their older siblings, as well as engaging in activities for eliminating crime from the community.
  BBS members participate in unique activities such as "Friendship Activities," performed at the request of probation offices or child guidance centers, family courts, and so forth. This is designed to help juveniles overcome their problems or anxieties by befriending them. BBS associations are also engaged in activities for prevention of juvenile delinquency and sound development of juveniles, such as outdoor activities, cooperation in social participation program for probationers and communicating with juveniles in juvenile training schools.
  There is a new trend in which BBS associations are organized in schools as their base of activity; but their organizations are mainly linked with local communities. As of April 1, 2003, there were 571 BBS associations and 6,169 members (Source: Data by Rehabilitation Bureau, Ministry of Justice).

(2) Women's Association for Rehabilitation Aid

  Women's Associations for Rehabilitation Aid are nongovernmental organizations that help the sound development of young people and cooperate in the rehabilitation of offenders and juvenile delinquents, as well as enlighten the public to prevent crime and delinquency in the community from a woman's point of view. They engage in a variety of activities, including diffusion of the concept of rehabilitation services, crime prevention, support and encouragement of probationers and parolees, and assistance to volunteer probation officers, BBS associations, etc. Recently, in addition to holding dialogue meetings on delinquency problems among small numbers of local peoples ("mini-meetings"), they are engaging in "activities to support childcare" while expanding community networks.
  As of April 1, 2003, there were 1,338 local associations and 204,760 members (Source: Data by Rehabilitation Bureau, Ministry of Justice).

(3) Cooperative employers

  Probationers, parolees and those who receive urgent aftercare have difficulty in finding regular employment due to their history of crime or delinquency and their unfavorable environment, which often hinders their reform and rehabilitation. Some nongovernmental volunteers employ these people with the understanding of their circumstances and cooperate in their rehabilitation. They are called "cooperative employers."
  As of April 1, 2003, there were 5,050 cooperative employers, including individuals and companies. Most of them were in the construction industry with 51.1 % followed by the manufacturing industry with 17.2%, and the service industry with 10.1 %. (Source: Data by Rehabilitation Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
  Cooperative employers are sometimes organized in probation districts or the jurisdiction areas of probation offices, and engage in other types of crime prevention activities than employing parolees and probationers.