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1 Basic systems for treatment
The essence of treatment of inmates in penal institutions lies in providing correctional treatment through the execution of the sentence and aiming for the reform and social rehabilitation of the inmates. There are 2 basic systems of treatment of inmates: the Classification Treatment System, in which scientific surveys are conducted to identify the problems of individual inmates, groups of inmates are organized based on the results of such surveys, and effective treatment is carried out in accordance with the nature of each group; and the Progressive Treatment System, in which 4 grades (Grades 1 to 4) have been established within the process of execution of the sentence, and inmates progress gradually from the bottom grade (Grade 4) to higher grades, depending on their performance. Another type of treatment called Open Treatment is adopted, depending on the nature of the inmates.
Fig. 2-4-3-1 shows the flow of treatment of inmates in penal institutions.
Fig. 2-4-3-1 Flow of treatment of inmates
(1) Classification Treatment System
The treatment of inmates in penal institutions aims at the correction of inmates for their smooth social rehabilitation. In order to achieve this, treatment must be implemented in response to characteristics of individual inmates after finding out reasons for committing offenses through scientific diagnosis of the personality of individual inmates. Scientific surveys to identify the problems of individual inmates are called classification examinations, and classification treatment includes preparing treatment plans based on the results of these examinations, organizing groups of inmates in order to effectively implement these plans, and carrying out effective treatment in accordance with the nature of each group.
Classification examinations are conducted as entry examinations (within about 2 months after imprisonment) and as reexaminations (every about 2 months for inmates whose term of imprisonment is less than 8 months and every about 6 months for others, or occasional by conducted as the need arises) on the basis of expertise and technology in medicine, psychology, education, sociology, and others. The result of classification examinations is used for appropriate confinement and treatment, including determination of classified categories (for confinement and for treatment) and allocation of cells, decision of treatment guidelines for security, work, education, etc., examinations for progressive treatment, and examinations on applications for parole.
As one of the measures to improve the Classification Treatment System, special institutions (the Sapporo, Miyagi, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, Takamatsu and Fukuoka Prisons as well as the Kawagoe Juvenile Prison) that serves as a classification center in each of 8 Regional Correction Headquarters nationwide are designated to carry out detailed examinations. These examinations target male inmates 16 years and over but under 28 years of age who have been newly imprisoned, whose term of imprisonment is 1 year or more, and who have never been imprisoned before (excluding those clearly classified into Class F). Inmates 14 years and over but under 16 years of age whose term of imprisonment is 3 months or more are imprisoned and are subject to the examination in the Kawagoe Juvenile Prison the classification center in the Tokyo Regional Correction Headquarters.
Based on the result of classification examinations, a category for confinement (as a standard for deciding the facility or division therein in which the offender is to be accommodated) and a category for treatment (as a standard for deciding the prior policy of treatment for the offender) are determined, and the facility in which the offender is to be accommodated is then decided.
Table 2-4-3-2 shows the number of inmates in each classified category for confinement and the percentage thereof as of December 31, 2002. The percentage of Class A inmates increased from the previous year.
Table 2-4-3-3 shows the number of inmates in each classified category for treatment and the percentage thereof, and inmates classified in Class G accounts for more than 60%.
Table 2-4-3-2 Number of inmates by classified category for confinement (as of December 31, 2002)
Table 2-4-3-3 Number of inmates by classified category for treatment (as of December 31, 2002)
(2) Progressive Treatment System
The Progressive Treatment System was established with the aim of encouraging inmates to make voluntary efforts to reform themselves. Four grades (Grades 1 to 4) have been created in the process of execution of the sentence. Inmates gradually progress from the bottom grade (Grade 4) to higher grades, depending on their performance. Accordingly, they are given privileges gradually while the restrictions on their freedom are relaxed, bringing them closer to normal social life. The Progressive Treatment System is a method that improves their social aptitude by placing responsibility on them in the communal life.
(3) Open Treatment System
The Open Treatment System is a form of treatment whereby use of locks and other physical facilities and equipment as well as supervision by staff to ensure confinement are relaxed on the basis of trust in the inmate's self-discipline and sense of responsibility. It is mainly implemented in penal institutions housing traffic offenders. Open treatment is also implemented for non-traffic offenders as a developed form of outdoor work in locations such as Masukawa Farm (attached to the Hakodate Juvenile Prison) and the Oi Shipyard (attached to the Matsuyama Prison). In institutions offering open treatment, cells, dining rooms, workshops and other rooms available for inmates are in principle kept unlocked. Prison officers are not assigned to the correction areas while inmates may meet visitors without attendants as far as possible. Under this treatment system, life guidance, vocational training, and educational treatment necessary for social rehabilitation are actively provided.