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3 Correctional guidance
In penal institutions, rehabilitation guidance and academic guidance are provided as major points of correctional treatment while making inmates engage in work. Rehabilitation guidance and academic guidance were introduced, in lieu of former education, and the Inmates Treatment Act has made it possible to require inmates to receive guidance. In addition to these forms of guidance, guidance upon commencement of execution of sentence and guidance prior to release are provided. Correctional guidance refers to these four forms of guidance.
(1) Rehabilitation guidance
Rehabilitation guidance is guidance aiming to make inmates aware of their responsibility for offenses they committed, foster their sound mind and body, and train them to acquire knowledge and attitudes necessary to adapt to society. There are general rehabilitation guidance and special rehabilitation guidance.
General rehabilitation guidance is provided by way of lectures, gymnastics, events, interviews, consultation and advice, and other methods, aiming to (1) prompt them to understand victims' feelings and have a sense of guilt, (2) prompt them to keep regular hours and have a sound way of thinking, and thereby promote their mental and physical good health, and (3) prompt them to be well prepared for designing their own life and rehabilitating themselves and acquire skills necessary to adapt to society.
Special rehabilitation guidance is provided for inmates who are considered to have difficulties in the course of rehabilitation or smooth reintegration into society due to certain circumstances, such as drug dependency or being a Boryokudan member. Special rehabilitation guidance, which aims to improve such circumstances, consists of guidance for withdrawing from drug dependency, guidance for breaking away from Boryokudan, guidance for preventing repeat sexual offenses, education from victims' viewpoints, guidance for traffic safety, and guidance for supporting employment (see Part 6, Chapter 3, Section 4, 3 (2) a).
(2) Academic guidance
Academic guidance is guidance equivalent to school education and is provided for inmates who are considered to have difficulties in the course of rehabilitation or smooth reintegration into society due to lack of academic ability necessary as a base of social life, and for inmates for whom the enhancement of academic ability is particularly expected to contribute to their smooth reintegration into society.
At Matsumoto Juvenile Prison, a branch of a local junior high school is set up for those eligible inmates from all over the country who have not completed compulsory education. In March 2006, seven inmates completed these courses and were given certificates of graduation. At Morioka, Matsumoto, and Nara Juvenile Prisons, correspondence courses of senior high schools are provided with the cooperation of local public schools. Further, Kawagoe Juvenile Prison and several other prisons teach those inmates who wish to go to university and help them take the High School Equivalency Examinations.
Even under the old Prison Act (the Prison Act (Act No. 28 of 1908) prior to the revision by the Inmates Treatment Act; hereinafter the same), regular and supplementary courses on necessary subjects such as Japanese, mathematics, and social studies were provided as academic education. As of December 31, 2005, 2,368 inmates took academic education. Of these, 76 had not completed compulsory education, 899 had only completed compulsory education, 762 had dropped out of senior high schools, 496 had graduated from senior high schools, and 145 did not fall under any of these categories (Source: The Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
(3) Guidance upon commencement of execution of sentence
Guidance upon commencement of execution of sentence is provided for newly admitted inmates to prompt them to understand the meaning of serving a sentence, individual treatment goals to be specified in the treatment guideline and how to achieve those goals, and rules for life in penal institutions. The term for the guidance is two weeks in principle.
(4) Guidance prior to release
The inmates who are about to be released are provided with guidance for two weeks in principle, concerning knowledge that becomes necessary immediately in social life after release. They are given knowledge on employment after release and rehabilitation services such as the probationary supervision system by way of lectures, personal interviews, and other methods. In addition, they may be granted, as needed, a chance to experience daily life quite similar to ordinary social life, or actually experience life, labor, and social service activities in the real world.
(5) Educational activities outside institutions in 2005
The total number of educational activities outside institutions (under the old Prison Act) implemented in 2005 was 1,326, among which 615 were for social service activities, 439 were for visiting public employment agencies or probation offices, 70 were for visiting factories, 49 were for taking examinations for licenses, 24 were for participating in speeches or athletic events, and 129 were for other purposes. The Inmates Treatment Act newly introduced a system for outing or staying out overnight (see Part 6, Chapter 3, Section 4, 3 (2) c).
In FY2005, 2,422 inmates took correspondence courses such as bookkeeping, calligraphy, penmanship, English language, computers, and other subjects (Source: The Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).