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1. Environmental adjustment starting during a stay in a penal institution
(1)The living environment of the place where a prisoner returns after release is important for his/her successful reintegration into society.In order to prevent him/her from repeating offenses,it is helpful to remove any factors promoting offenses and ensure an appropriate living environment after release.Probation offices carry out environmental adjustment of the place where a prisoner returns from that perspective.The results of environmental adjustment are more than a judgment factor for granting parole.They support every prisoner in searching and adjusting the living place suitable for his/her rehabilitation.
(2)The warden of penal institution has the obligation to prepare personal information report on an inmate sentenced to imprisonment with or without labor and to send the report to the head of the probation office that have jurisdiction over the planned place of his/her return.Once the head of the probation office receives such report,he/she appoints a probation officer and volunteer probation officer in charge and prompt them to carry out environmental adjustment.The officers in charge discuss with guarantor and other persons concerned and hold interviews and correspondence with the prisoner to conduct research into a wide range of issues,including information about guarantor and his/her family members,information about the neighborhood of the planned place of his/her return,social sentiment about the offense in question,sentiment of victims,payment of compensation to victims,living conditions and friendship of the prisoner,and prospects for his/her academic career s,occupations,and livelihood after release.Then they make adjustments to necessary matters.If they find,as a result of continuous adjustment,that the environment of the planned place to return is not appropriate for the rehabilitation of the prisoner,they urge the prisoner to change the place to return,carrying out environmental adjustment for the new returning place.The results of environmental adjustment are important data for examining parole,as well as reference materials for the treatment in correctional institutions.They also serve as a stepping stone for the social reintegration of the prisoner released on parole or on completion of the sentence.
(3)In the early days when the rehabilitation system was established in July1949,environmental adjustment was provided only for those prisoners sentenced to imprisonment for one year or more.However,the scope of application expanded in1953,and environmental adjustment came to be performed for almost all prisoners accordingly.
Fig. 5-4-1-1 shows the number of environmental adjustment cases for prisoners newly received by probation offices.The number fluctuates in line with the number of newly admitted prisoners,and has continued to increase since1996,reaching45,399in2003.
Fig. 5-4-1-1 Number of environmental adjustment cases for prisoners newly received by probation offices(1973-2003)