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Institutional treatment and community-based treatment are conducted in different locations,but have the common objective of promoting the reform and social rehabilitation of offenders in order to protect the civil society from prevailing offenses.A smooth transition from the former to the latter is the key for successful implementation of the two treatment programs.
Parole plays a major role in making such a smooth transition.It enables a prisoner with repentant attitude to be"provisionally"released before completion of his/her sentence.
Environmental adjustment and pre-release guidance are also provided prior to the release of prisoners,in order to support their social reintegration.
Urgent aftercare for discharged offenders may,by request,be provided to those parole denied and released on completion of their sentence.Unlike adult parolees placed under supervision and care,prisoners released on not parole are set free completely after their release.Many of them,however,do not have family members or relatives on whom they can depend or a place of next abode,and they have difficulties in reintegrating themselves into society.Thus,the urgent aftercare for discharged offenders-"the last fortress of criminal policies"-is an important system for supporting the social reinte gration of prisoners non-paroled.
This chapter will outline these treatment programs including changes in their implementation.