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 White paper on crime 2004 Part5/Chapter1/2. 

2. Composition of Part5

  Part5 is composed of six chapters,including Chapter1"Introduction."
  In Chapter2,"History of Treatment of Adult Offenders,"we reviewed the history of the treatment systems for adult offenders in Japan,clarified its characteristics,and attempted to specify the current situation that has required reform.
  In Chapter3,"Trends and Challenges in Correction of Adult Offenders,"we examined challenges in correction of adult offenders from the quantitative perspective of overcrowded prisons and the qualitative perspective of the change in the nature of prisoners.We then presented various initiatives being taken to cope with these problems.We also mentioned the background factors that lead to overcrowding of prisons and concluded that the recent prison situation may be labeled as"prison overcrowding within the high-crime society."
  In Chapter4,"Transition from Institutional Treatment to Community-based Treatment,"we overviewed the development and operation of various systems,mainly parole,to help prisoners reintegrate into society.
  In Chapter5,"Trends and Challenges in Probation/Parole,"we examined the adult probation/parole supervision system by focusing on the changes in adult probationers/parolees and changes in key providers of community-based treatment.We then specified challenges for the system and described current initiatives to cope with them.
  Finally,in Chapter6,"Conclusion,"we summarized the challenges in the treatment of offenders within the high-crime society.