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2. Summit meetings of leading countries
In summit meetings of leading countries(hereinafter referred to as"summit meetings"),various issues on international crimes are discussed such as drug trafficking,terrorism,money laundering and transnational organized crime groups,emphasizing the necessity of international cooperation for their suppression.
The Financial Action Task Force(FATF)was convened under the economic declaration of the Arche Summit held in1989.In1990,the FATF adopted the40Recommendations of the FATF concerning measures against money laundering,including those measures such as criminalizing money laundering relating to drug offenses,encouraging financial institutions etc.to identify suspicious customers and to report suspicious transactions to the competent authorities,confiscating and retaining illegal proceeds,and strengthening international cooperation.The original40Recommendations were revised in1996and provided to apply the regulations on money laundering not only to that based on drug offenses but also to that based on other serious offenses.Japan made arrangements to promote the recommendations by making the"Law Concerning Punishment of Organized Crime,Control of Crime Proceeds and Other Matters"enacted on August12,1999.In order to respond to the changing methods and technique s of money laundering,the revised40Recommendations were revised again at the FATF Plenary in June2003and recommendations were made such as expansion of the scope of offenses that are the premises of money laundering charges,strengthening the obligations of financial institutions etc.to identify suspicious consumers and to report suspicious transactions,prevention of misuse of corporation bodies,application of measures against money laundering to non-moneylenders and professionals etc.
In accordance with the agreement reached at the G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting held in response to the simultaneous terrorist attacks in the United States in September2001,the FATF adopted the"Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing"in October2001and has been taking measures against terrorist financing by making use of the financing monitoring means developed against money laundering.
Against transnational organized crime,the Senior Experts Group on Transnational Organized Crime(Lyon Group)was established in accordance with the Chairperson's statement at the Halifax Summit held in1995.At the Lyon Summit held in1996,the Lyon Group presented the"Senior Experts Group Recommendations to Combat Transnational Organized Crime Efficiently(40Recommendations of the Lyon Group),"concerning protection of informants and witnesses etc.and controlled delivery(monitored illegal transportation)etc.The state of the implementation of the Recommendations was reported at the Denver Summit in1997and a consensus of opinions was reached at the Birmingham Summit in1998in favor of making efforts for negotiations on international conventions on organized crime.
As for anti-terrorism measures,efforts have been made to establish a consensus of opinions on the occasion of summit meetings and to adopt conventions at the U.N.etc.based on such consensus.In particular,following the sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway in Japan and the terrorist bombing of the Federal Building in the United States in1995,anti-terrorism measures were included in the agenda of the Halifax Summit and the Chairperson's statement required the anti-terrorism expert group to report to the minister-level conference on concrete and cooperative measures for preventing,suppressing and investigating terrorist attacks.Subsequently,the"Declaration on Terrorism"was presented at the Lyon Summit in1996and the"25Recommendations of the G7/G8 of the Ministerial Conference on Terrorism"on measures to combat terrorism were adopted in Paris in July1996.Since then,anti-terrorism experts of leading countries of Summit members have met to discuss international c ooperation on anti-terrorism measures on a regular basis(currently known as the Roma Group).
At the Cologne Summit in1999,an agreement was reached to further promote the negotiations for the U.N.convention on organized crime and the U.N.convention on terrorist financing.At the Ky?sh?-Okinawa Summit in2000,a confirmation was obtained on the necessity of making positive efforts against crimes such as transnational organized crime,hi-tech offenses,drug offenses,financial offenses including money laundering,corruptions including bribery,and terrorism.At the Genoa Summit in2001,the fight against transnational organized crime and against drugs was included in the major issues of the agenda.At the Kananaskis Summit in2002,which was the first summit meeting of leading countries after the simultaneous terrorist attacks in the United States in2001,cooperation for taking measures against terrorism was one of the prior issues,and the following two matters were confirmed:(1)Summit members shall share information and cooperate with one another in taking measures so as to clarify u nderlying linkage between criminal activities,such as drug trafficking and money laundering,and terrorist organizations;(2)the"G8 Recommendations on Transnational Crime"(agreed as the revised version of the"40Recommendations of the Lyon Group"at the conference of G8 Ministers of Justice and the Interior Meeting that was held in advance of the Summit)were developed by revising the"40Recommendations of the Lyon Group"so that they would reflect the latest analysis on techniques of investigation,laws and measures of cooperation that should be formulated on a global basis for the purpose of protecting society against transnational crime and terrorist threats.At the Evian Summit in2003,measures against terrorism were considered as one of the prior issues,and a reconfirmation was obtained on agreements reached at the Kananaskis Summit to prevent terrorists or those who hide them from obtaining weapons of mass destruction.Also at the Sea Island Summit i n2004,measures against terrorism were discussed as one of the prior issues,and action plans for the"Secure and Facilitated International Travel Initiative"(SAFTI)were adopted,reaching an agreement on strengthening of measures against terrorism.