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1. United Nations
The United Nations takes various actions to reduce losses in human resources and materials due to crimes and their impact on social and economic development,as well as to promote the implementation of U.N.standards and rules on criminal justice.
The U.N.Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders was approved by the U.N.General Assembly in1950as an international congress for proposing policies and exchanging opinions in various fields of criminal justice.Since the First Congress held in1955,congresses have been held every five years and the10th Congress was held in Vienna in April2000.A number of standards and rules on criminal justice adopted at the Congresses,such as the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners(First Congress in1955)and the Standard Minimum Rules for Non-Custodial Measures(Eighth Congress in1990),were also adopted or approved by the U.N.General Assembly and U.N.Economic and Social Council,and their implementation has been promoted in various countries.
As a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council,the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice was established in1992and it held its13th meeting in Vienna in May2004.The Commission is engaged in formulating policies of the U.N.in the field of criminal justice.Japan has been elected as a member of the Commission and has participated in its activities since its foundation.
As for measures against narcotic drugs,multilateral treaties have been adopted by the U.N.such as the U.N.Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in1988.Japan has ratified these treaties and developed corresponding domestic laws.
As for measures against transnational organized crime,following the discussions after the ministerial-level conference on transnational organized crime in1994,the U.N.Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was adopted by the U.N.General Assembly in2000.The Convention criminalizes participation in an organized crime group,money laundering,and bribery and corruption,and also provides the regulations for confiscation of crime proceeds and international cooperation to that end,extradition of offenders involved in organized crime,and protection of witnesses.Japan signed the Convention in2000,and the conclusion was approved by the Diet in May2003.The"Protocol to Prevent,Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons,Especially Women and Children"(provisional title),the"Protocol Against Smuggling of Migrants by Land,Sea and Air"(provisional title),and the"Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms,their Parts a nd Components and Ammunition"(provisional title),which supplement the Convention,were adopted by the U.N.General Assembly by2001,and Japan signed them in December2002.
As for measures against crimes involving women and children,the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the U.N.General Assembly in1989and Japan ratified it in1994under the approval of the Diet.In2000,the"Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children,child prostitution and child pornography,"and"Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict"were also adopted by the U.N.General Assembly.Japan signed them in May2002,and the conclusion was approved by the Diet in April2004.Among them,Japan signed the"Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict"in August2004,and it came into force in September2004.
As for measures against international bribery and corruption,the U.N.Convention against Corruption(provisional title)was adopted at the U.N.General Assembly in2003,which criminalized bribery of foreign public officials etc.and constructed the framework for recovery of proceeds of corruption to the country from which the proceeds originated.Japan signed it in December2003.
As for measures against terrorism,multilateral treaties on international cooperation in anti-hijacking measures were developed under the initiative of the International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO)in the1960s.In the1970s,the"Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons,including Diplomatic Agents"and the"International Convention against the Taking of Hostages"were adopted by the U.N.Japan concluded them in1987.Due to the frequent occurrence of heinous terrorist attacks since the beginning of the1990s,the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism was adopted by the U.N.,and the U.N.Ad Hoc Committee started designing the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.In1997,the
International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing was adopted by the U. N.General Assembly,and Japan signed it in1998.Following the simultaneous terrorist attacks in the United States in September2001,for securing the implementation of the convention,the"Law Concerning Development of Related Laws Upon Conclusion of the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombing"(Law No.121of2001)was enacted,and having obtained the approval of the Diet,Japan deposited an instrument of acceptance to conclude the Convention in November,2001.The Convention came into force in Japan in December,2001.
International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism(Convention against Terrorism Financing)was adopted by the U.N.General Assembly in1999.After the simultaneous terrorist attacks in September2001in the United States,the resolutions on criminalizing the financing of terrorism,freezing terrorist assets,and promoting the conclusion of terrorism-related conventions such as the Convention against Terrorism Financing were adopted by the U.N.Security Council,and U.N.Member States were obliged to implement the resolutions accordingly.Japan signed the Convention against Terrorism Financing in October2001,and domestic laws for securing the implementation of the convention,the"Law on Customer Identification and Retention of Records on Transactions by Financial Institutions(Law No.32of2002)"and the"Law Concerning Punishments of Financing of Criminal Acts for the Purpose of Threatening the Public etc.(Law No.67of2002)" were enacted.Having obtained the approval of the Diet,Japan disposed an instrument of acceptance to conclude the Convention in June2002.The Convention came into force in Japan in July2002.