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4. Nongovernmental support organizations
The following are major nongovernmental organizations and supporters actively participating in or cooperating for offenders rehabilitation aid activities.
(1) BBS associations
Big Brothers and Sisters(BBS)associations are voluntary organizations of young people who assist in the sound development and prevention of delinquency of juveniles by relating to them as their older brothers or sisters,as well as engaging in the activities for eliminating crime from communities.
BBS members participate in"Friendship Activities,"at the request of probation offices or child guidance centers,and family courts to help juveniles overcome their problems or anxieties by befriending them.They are also engaged in such activities for sound development of juveniles as outdoor activities,cooperation in social participation programs for probationers practiced by probation offices and communicating with juveniles in juvenile training schools.A nationwide body,the Japan BBS Association revised the"Basic principle of BBS movement"in May2004,aiming at enhancing their activities.
As of April1,2004,there were564BBS associations and6,024members(Source:Data by Rehabilitation Bureau,Ministry of Justice).
(2) Women's Association for Rehabilitation Aid
Women's Associations for Rehabilitation Aid are volunteer organizations that support the sound development of young people and the rehabilitation of offenders and juvenile delinquents,as well as crime prevention in communities from a woman's perspective.They engage in a variety of activities,including support and encouragement for probationers,and cooperation and assistance for volunteer probation officers,halfway houses,and BBS associations etc.
As of April1,2004,there were1,345local associations and 201,448members(Source:Data by Rehabilitation Bureau,Ministry of Justice).
(3) Cooperative employers
Probationers,parolees and those who receive urgent aftercare have difficulties in finding regular employment due to their history of crime or delinquency etc.Cooperative employers are volunteers who employ these people with the understanding of their circumstances and cooperate in their rehabilitation.
As of April1,2004,there were 5,547 cooperative employers,including individuals and companies.By type of industry,construction accounted for52.4%,followed by manufacturing with17.0%,and service industry with10.5%(Source:Data by Rehabilitation Bureau,Ministry of Justice).