2 Discussion

This subsection briefly discusses the factors that are considered important in facilitating social reintegration of serious offenders based on the cases presented in the previous subsection.

Firstly, successful social reintegration requires offenders to fully recognize that they were responsible for the offenses they committed themselves and to then think about the shortfalls that led to the offenses and to continue making the effort to overcome those shortfalls. It is easily observable in the cases presented in the previous subsection that being very motivated to make the effort to be reformed/rehabilitated was the key to their social reintegration as they were able to correct their egocentric tendencies, establish good relationships with others, correct their attitude of escaping life by drinking and gambling, and determine to live for others.

Next, fully recognizing that the offenses they committed greatly damaged others and sincerely responding to their victims or the bereaved families can also be a factor that facilitates their social reintegration. The apology to the victim in case [1], the out-of-court settlement with the victim in case [3], and praying for the comfort of the spirit of the victim in case [4] were all representative of their remorse and can be considered to have greatly contributed to their social reintegration.

Furthermore, securing and maintaining a stable living foundation can also be regarded as a factor that facilitates their social reintegration. The security of having both a residence and employment had been established and thus a stable living foundation in all the cases presented in the previous subsection. As in cases [2] and [4], however, quite a few offenders have no relatives, etc. that they can rely on, thus making admission to halfway houses is essential to their social reintegration. In addition, offenders typically face various difficulties in gaining employment. Attention should therefore be paid to the fact that the assistance from relatives and the volunteer probation officers was of help to secure employment and the understanding of employers enabled him to keep working in both cases [3] and [4].

Lastly, in addition to being provided with assistance to secure a living foundation having good human relationships with others, including relatives, is of mental support to offenders and is therefore important in their social reintegration. In case [3] it can be deemed that being provided with assistance from a relative, whom the offender had not seen for a long time, and regaining a relationship with his child enabled him to live a full life, thereby facilitating his social reintegration. In case [1] the presence of family members was deemed to have been of mental support to the offender. Furthermore, in case [4] the offender was provided with both moral and material support from the volunteer probation officer and the employer for approximately 20 years while having a good relationship with his colleagues at work and his neighbors can be deemed to have helped him live a fulfilling life and thus supported his social reintegration.