8 The International Criminal Court
In 2003 the International Criminal Court was established in the Netherlands in accordance with the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court that came into effect in 2002 after being adopted at a diplomatic conference hosted by the U.N. The Court is a permanent international criminal court that can prosecute and punish anyone who has committed the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression (undefined) in accordance with international laws, and where investigation and prosecution is only implemented when the country with jurisdiction over the subject crime has no intention or ability to investigate and prosecute them. Japan became a member nation of the International Criminal Court in 2007, and the Act on Cooperation with the International Criminal Court (Act No. 37 of 2007), which provides procedural provisions for cooperation in investigations, etc. of cases over which the said court has jurisdiction, was enforced.