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 White paper on crime 2004 Part5/Chapter5/Section1/3. 

3. Factors Inherent in Community-Based Treatment

  Probation/parole supervision is different from institutional treatment because it is implemented in an environment where an offender is susceptible to various social factors and stimuli.
  For instance,the difference is particularly noticeable in the following aspects.First,an offender's relationships with his or her family and friends are very important.His or her chances for improvement and rehabilitation will be greatly increased with adequate support from his or her family and friends.Without their support,he or she might give up on himself or herself,or might resume the company with organized crime group members or stimulant drug friends.In this way,an offender's relationships with family and friends can promote or hinder his/her rehabilitation.Second,it is particularly challenging for a parolee or probationer addicted to alcohol,drugs,or gambling to overcome his/her addiction in a free society where alcohol,drugs,and gambling are easily accessible.Third,employment is a key to his or her improvement and successful rehabilitation because he or she has to make his/her own living in most cases.Sometimes,due to a stagnant economy or poor employment situation,h e or she can not find a job despite his or her efforts.Fourth,it becomes increasingly difficult to adequately observe the lifestyles of parolees and probationers and to properly supervise them because their activities and friends have expanded geographically since the rapid development of transportation and telecommunication means allowed them to move around more easily.
  In order to understand the trend in offenders under probation/parole supervision,it is important to take into consideration the different legal framework of parolees and probationers and also the factors inherent in community-based treatment.