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1. Development of basic laws during the period from1945to1954
The current rehabilitation services started with the Offenders Rehabilitation Law established in1949(Law No.142of1949).The law intended to"help those who have committed offenses reform and rehabilitate themselves,grant them amnesty as appropriate,develop fair and reasonable systems for the management of parole and its related matters,and promote activities to prevent crime,thereby protecting society and improve welfare of individuals and the public."Under the philosophy of the new Constitution,the law established the Regional Parole Boards as bodies to grant parole,and provided for supervision for parolees.
In the pre-war period,except for juveniles,probation/parole supervision had been implemented only for some adult political offenders for part of that period,and other parolees had been supervised by the police.The Offenders Rehabilitation Law was innovative as it established a new probation/parole suspension system designed to help reform and rehabilitation of adult offenders.
Upon the amendments of the Penal Code in1953and1954,offenders given suspended sentence were included in the scope of probationary suspension,which had been discussed but failed at the time of the establishment of the Offenders Rehabilitation Law.To implement the Penal Code reform,the Law for Probationary Supervision of Persons under Suspension of Execution of Sentence was enacted and put into force in1954(Law No.58of1954).Under this law,unlike parolees,persons under suspension of execution of sentence are not subject to special conditions but they only observe general conditions that are more relaxed than those imposed on parolees.Thus,supervision for adult offenders has different histories and contents for probationers and parolees.
In addition,in1950,the Law for Aftercare of Discharged Offenders(Law No.203of1950)and the Volunteer Probation Officer Law(Law No.204of1950)were also established.The former law enables those who are not placed under probation/parole supervision,such as prisoners released on completion of their sentence and suspects granted suspension of prosecution,to receive after care services at their request,and the latter law provides for the matters relating to volunteer probation officers who engage in implementing probation/parole supervision,such as the number and term of those officers and the procedures for their appointment and dismissal.Thus,these laws almost completed the existing framework of rehabilitation services.