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4. Nongovernmental support organizations
Various rehabilitation activities could not be sufficiently effective without the understanding and cooperation of the community. The following are major nongovernmental support organizations and supporters participating in and cooperating for such activities.
BBS (Big Brothers and Sisters) associations are voluntary organizations of young people who assist in the sound development and prevention of delinquency among juveniles by relating to them as their older siblings, as well as engaging in activities for eliminating crime and delinquency from the community.
BBS members participate in characteristic activities such as"Friendship Activities", designed to help juveniles overcome their problems or anxieties by befriending them and being good conversation partners for them. This is implemented at the request of probation offices as well as the request of child guidance centers, family courts, and so forth. BBS associations are also engaged in other activities such as communicating with juveniles in juvenile training schools, promoting the sound development of children and juveniles in the community, and preventing juvenile delinquency.
BBS associations have been formed not only by regions including municipalities but also by schools as their unit of activity. As of April 1, 2001, there were 591 BBS associations and 6,053 members (Source:Rehabilitation Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
(2)Women's Association for Rehabilitation Aid
Women's Associations for Rehabilitation Aid are nongovernmental organizations that aim for the sound development of young people and cooperate in the rehabilitation of offenders and juvenile delinquents, as well as undertaking public information activities designed to prevent crime and delinquency from occurring in the community, from a woman's point of view. These associations engage in a variety of activities, including diffusion of the concept of rehabilitation, crime prevention, support and encouragement for those on probation or parole, and cooperation with volunteer probation officers, BBS associations, etc. Recently, in addition to holding dialog meetings among small numbers of local residents ("mini-meetings"), they are engaged in activities to support childcare in the community.
As of April 1, 2001, there were 1,317 local associations and 200,310 members (Source:Rehabilitation Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Probationers, parolees and those who receive urgent aftercare have difficulty in finding permanent employment due to their history of crime or delinquency, their unfavorable environment and other reasons. This often hinders their attempts to reform and rehabilitate themselves. Some nongovernmental volunteers employ these people with the understanding of their circumstances and cooperate in their reform and rehabilitation. These volunteers are called"cooperative employers. "
As of April 1, 2001, there were 4,606 cooperative employers, including individuals and companies. By industry, most of them were in the construction industry with 50.6%, followed by the manufacturing industry with 17.5%, the service industry with 8.9%, in that order. (Source:Rehabilitation Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
Cooperative employers are organized in some probation districts or jurisdiction areas of probation offices by such district or area, and they provide various types of cooperation for diffusion of the concept of rehabilitation and crime prevention activities, as well as employing probationers and parolees.