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Inmates awaiting trial are accommodated in detention houses, or in the detention sections of prisons or juvenile prisons. The treatment of inmates awaiting trial is designed to prevent escape or destruction of evidence, while taking care to respect the defense rights of the suspect or person accused and to ensure a proper custodial life. Inmates awaiting trial are, in principle, accommodated in single cells, but even when housed in shared cells, consideration is given to ensure that suspects connected to the same case are not housed together and have no opportunity to contact each other outside their cells.
Unlike convicted inmates, inmates awaiting trial are in principle allowed to purchase clothes or bedding at their own expense as well as given a wide range of freedom to buy their own food, drink, and daily requisites, provided that they do not violate the rules or hygiene of the institution. There are no special restrictions on prison visits and written communication except unavoidable cases under the management of the institution, while the contents of written communication are subject to censorship. Visits by defense counsels are not observed by guards. Reading of books, magazines, and newspapers is allowed as long as it does not contravene the purpose of detaining inmates awaiting trial or violate the rules of the institution.
Inmates awaiting trial are sometimes detained in police cells (detention cells attached to police stations, substituting for detention houses, etc. under Clause 3, Article 1 of the Prison Law). The average daily inmates of police cells in FY 2000 was 10,572 (Source:Correction Bureau, Ministry of Justice).
The treatment of workhouse inmates is generally in line with that of inmates sentenced to imprisonment with labor. In 2000, 3,669 persons were admitted to workhouses, of whom 1,648 were newly admitted to workhouses after being detained in penal institutions (Source:Annual Report of Statistics on Correction).
The treatment of detainees subject to non-criminal confinement as the punishment for contempt of court (Kanchi confinement) is in line with that of inmates awaiting trial, except that there are some restrictions on visits, written communication, and the freedom to purchase clothes and that they are not allowed to buy their own food or drink. In 2000, 16 persons were subject to Kanchi confinement (Source:Annual Report of Statistics on Correction).
Inmates sentenced to death are accommodated in detention houses until the sentence is executed. The treatment of inmates on death is generally in line with that of inmates awaiting trial. They are accommodated in single cells and are not obliged to work, though some are engaged in work at their own request. Measures are taken to give them peace of mind such as religious services by prison chaplains or guidance and advice from volunteer visitors for inmates. As of December 31, 2000, there were 53 inmates awaiting execution of death sentence (Source:Annual Report of Statistics on Correction).