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2. Measures against computer-related offenses
Some network computers connected to telecommunication lines have an access control function by means of passwords to control and limit access to the computer to certain persons. Because incidents in which unauthorized illegal access to such computers with access control have increased dramatically, in order to prohibit and punish such illegally accessed acts, the Law Concerning Prohibition of the Illegally Accessed Acts (Law No.128 of 1999) was enacted on August 13, 1999, and it came into force in February 2000. 67 cases and 37 persons (including 6 juveniles) were cleared for violations of this law in 2000. By nature of illegal access, 61 cases involved unauthorized use of another person's password, 1 case involved an attack on the security hole, and 5 cases involved encouragement of illegal access (Source:Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency).
In order to regulate business that shows pictures of sexual acts through the use of the Internet, etc. , the Law Regulating Adult Entertainment Businesses, etc. was partially amended in April 1998. This amendment set forth new provisions for regulations on special sex entertainment business for transmitting pictures and for punishments for violations of the regulations. The new provisions came into force in April 1999, and 2 cases were cleared in 2000 for violations of these provisions (Source:Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency).
Furthermore, the Law for Punishing Acts Related to Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and for Protecting Children (Law No.52 of 1999) was enacted on May 18 and came into force in November 1999. The law set forth penal provisions for the public display of child pornography, including acts of showing child pornography on the Internet for an unspecified or large number of people. According to the Community Safety Bureau of the National Police Agency, the number of cleared cases of violations of this law was 9 in 1999 and 121 in 2000.
As international measures against hi-tech offenses by 8 major countries including Japan (G8), a Senior Expert Group on International Organized Crime was established, following the President's statement at the 1995 Halifax Summit. The Senior Expert Group submitted " 40 Recommendations" on measures against international organized crimes to the 1996 Lyon Summit. These eight countries have been discussing various matters including investigative methods for hi-tech offenses, cooperation in investigations, and how to have access to the data concerning hi-tech offenses across national borders.
At the Birmingham Summit in 1998, it was stated that cooperation with industry was necessary and important for taking measures against hi-tech offenses. This statement was further emphasized at the conference between G8 ministers in charge of justice and internal affairs held in 1999. Following this, joint high-level meetings and joint workshop meetings between governments and industries in G8 countries were held in 2000. Furthermore, the second high-level meeting was held in Tokyo in May 2001, and at the meeting it was confirmed that hi-tech offenses were serious world threats and public-private cooperation should be promoted to analyze and prevent such threats.